Work package 3

Evaluation of the results of public campaigns in high-income countries

Work Package leader: Prof. Stephan Harbarth, Université de Genève

 

Objectives
General objective:

  • To perform a systematic review of public campaigns on improving antibiotic use and the uptake of immunisation programs in high-income countries (Europe, America, Asia, Australia)

Specific aims:

  • To describe characteristics and specific features of these campaigns (duration, costs, target population, type of interventions)
  • To assess important outcomes of these campaigns, in terms of quantity and quality of antibiotic use, vaccination uptake, costs, adverse outcomes, sustained effects, resistance rates
  • To compare trends in antibiotic use & resistance in countries with and without public campaigns and explore alternative hypotheses to explain the observed differences
     

Description of work
The following investigations relevant to the specific aims have been undertaken:

  1. Retrieving, documenting and reviewing systematically data on features of public campaigns to improve antibiotic use and vaccination uptake in high-income countries worldwide.  Published information has been gathered on the basis of personal files, articles and an exhaustive Web search using different search strategies and engines (e.g. PUBMED, GOOGLE etc).  Key informants were identified for each country and contacted for interview and knowledge transfer.  Interviews were performed in written form and analysed to identify specific items of interest.
  2. Subsequently, an ACCESS database was created and items of interest were entered as quantitative variables. Results were presented in a systematic fashion (spreadsheet), including important characteristics of the campaigns: technical criteria (e.g. duration, costs, target population, type of interventions), data source, data availability, additional references.
  3. In a 2nd phase, important campaign-related outcomes were retrieved from national or international data sources for 2 groups of countries (presence or absence of public campaigns).  Data on quantity and quality of antibiotic use were gathered with the help of national networks (e.g. ESAC) or through other channels (e.g. IMS data provided by national representatives).  Trends in antibiotic resistance have been assessed by using validated data from government-sponsored surveillance networks (e.g. EARSS, WHOnet, CDC) or industry-sponsored systems (e.g. SENTRY, MYSTIC, Alexander project).  Additional data on antibiotic use and resistance were provided by other work packages of this project.  Finally, we attempted to identify potential adverse outcomes through structured interviews with public health officials or representatives of professional societies in each included country.  Data gaps were documented for further research.  Again, data were entered in a systematic database.
  4. In the final phase of this WP, we prepared a summary report and two scientific publications submitted to peer-reviewed journals.

Evaluation of the results of public campaigns in high-income countries

Work Package leader: Prof. Stephan Harbarth, Université de Genève

 

Objectives
General objective:

  • To perform a systematic review of public campaigns on improving antibiotic use and the uptake of immunisation programs in high-income countries (Europe, America, Asia, Australia)

Specific aims:

  • To describe characteristics and specific features of these campaigns (duration, costs, target population, type of interventions)
  • To assess important outcomes of these campaigns, in terms of quantity and quality of antibiotic use, vaccination uptake, costs, adverse outcomes, sustained effects, resistance rates
  • To compare trends in antibiotic use & resistance in countries with and without public campaigns and explore alternative hypotheses to explain the observed differences
     

Description of work
The following investigations relevant to the specific aims have been undertaken:

  1. Retrieving, documenting and reviewing systematically data on features of public campaigns to improve antibiotic use and vaccination uptake in high-income countries worldwide.  Published information has been gathered on the basis of personal files, articles and an exhaustive Web search using different search strategies and engines (e.g. PUBMED, GOOGLE etc).  Key informants were identified for each country and contacted for interview and knowledge transfer.  Interviews were performed in written form and analysed to identify specific items of interest.
  2. Subsequently, an ACCESS database was created and items of interest were entered as quantitative variables. Results were presented in a systematic fashion (spreadsheet), including important characteristics of the campaigns: technical criteria (e.g. duration, costs, target population, type of interventions), data source, data availability, additional references.
  3. In a 2nd phase, important campaign-related outcomes were retrieved from national or international data sources for 2 groups of countries (presence or absence of public campaigns).  Data on quantity and quality of antibiotic use were gathered with the help of national networks (e.g. ESAC) or through other channels (e.g. IMS data provided by national representatives).  Trends in antibiotic resistance have been assessed by using validated data from government-sponsored surveillance networks (e.g. EARSS, WHOnet, CDC) or industry-sponsored systems (e.g. SENTRY, MYSTIC, Alexander project).  Additional data on antibiotic use and resistance were provided by other work packages of this project.  Finally, we attempted to identify potential adverse outcomes through structured interviews with public health officials or representatives of professional societies in each included country.  Data gaps were documented for further research.  Again, data were entered in a systematic database.
  4. In the final phase of this WP, we prepared a summary report and two scientific publications submitted to peer-reviewed journals.
Stephan Harbarth